Microbiological Analysis of Bangladeshi Paper Currency Circulating in Dhaka City
Joya Boidya1, Riaz Uddin2 and Shankar Chandra Mandal3*
1Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University, Bangladesh. 3Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000.
ABSTRACT: Paper currency notes which are transferred from one individual to other are known to carry bacteria on their surface and are responsible for transmitting them to human. The present study was thus conducted to evaluate the present status of Bangladeshi paper currency concerning the bacterial contamination. A total of 300 different valued banknotes were obtained from 10 different occupational persons. Significantly higher bacterial concentration was detected in bank notes sampled from hawker than that of other sources while significantly lower count was found from students (p<0.05). However, similar total bacterial count was observed in bank notes obtained from fish seller and fruit seller. Similar density of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. were found in bank notes sampled from all sources. Escherichia coli, Klebshialla, Proteus and Enterobacter, Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from different bank notes of different. Significantly higher concentration of V. cholera and other vibrios were detected in bank notes sampled from fish seller than those of other sources. Similar concentration of Psedomonas, Alcaloigens, Proteus using pseudomonas agar media was also detected in currencies sampled from all sources. However, significantly higher fungal density was detected in currencies obtained from beggar and fruit seller while lower concentration was observed in bank notes sampled from food seller (p<0.05). A total of 60 bacterial strains were isolated from 10 different sources and from 6 different currencies. Thus findings of the present study suggest that paper currency in circulation in Bangladesh may act as the reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria.
KEYWORDS: paper currency, banknotes, bacterial contamination, slum dwellers, bus conductor.