Toxoplasmosis-A Food borne Zoonotic Parasitic Disease of Human

Toxoplasmosis-A Food borne Zoonotic Parasitic Disease of Human

Taibur Rahman* and Tanzina Tarannum

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka.

ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is a food borne, protozoan disease of warm-blooded animals including human, caused by the unicellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. After entering into host cells, T. gondii establishes acute infection through stage conversion into fast replicating tachyzoite. However, T. gondii tachyzoite undergoes developmental switching into slow replicating, dormant bradyzoite tissue cyst preferentially in the skeletal muscle and brain which causes life-long persistent infection on the host. T. gondii infection could be benign for immune competent host but it can cause fatal life threatening complication in immunocompromised individual and fetus bearing pregnant women. This mini-review highlights the major transmission routes of T. gondii infection into human. T. gondii uses fecal-oral route for transmission into human though eating oocyst contaminated foods, vegetables and water. In addition, infected meats of major livestock animals and birds have been identified as major route of T. gondii transmission into human. However, pork, sheep and backyard chicken have been shown as the predominate reservoir of T. gondii due to their higher rate of susceptibility to infection and growing in free housing condition. Public awareness on the transmission strategy of T. gondii might help on reducing overall Toxoplasmosis incidence world-wide.

KEYWORDS: Toxoplasmosis, Foods and Vegetables, Livestock meats, Parasite transmission, Human