Bioresearch Communications - (BRC) 2023-12-31T02:20:12+00:00 Dr. Hossain Uddin Shekhar Open Journal Systems <p>Bioresearch Communications (BRC) is an open access, peer-reviewed biennial official journal of Graduate Biochemists Organization (GBA), Bangladesh. It is an International Journal which accepts original research work in different disciplines of biological science. There are two issues (January and July) of this journal per year. BRC is a non -profit Journal. Presently we are publishing only online issues.</p> ADENOID HYPERTROPHY MANAGED WITH ARTEMISIA CINA DILUTION: A STUDY OF TWO CASES 2023-12-31T02:03:28+00:00 Sheak Ahshan Habib Md. Zakaria Md. Abdul Hai Md. Ruhul Amin Nazmul Hasan <p>Adenoid hypertrophy, is the enlargement of adenoid tissues in the nasopharynx, a common concern among children and often exhibits with &nbsp;nasal congestion, mouth breathing, snoring, and sleep disturbances. Spontaneous healing of enlarged adenoid is common in adolescents and adults, however, in this case study, we present two instances of pediatric patients who demonstrated adenoid-related health issues. After a thorough evaluation, and based on the principle of symptom similarity <em>Artemisia cina</em> was prescribed; this treatment continued for three consecutive weeks, and a follow-up lateral x-ray of nasopharynx was obtained one more week later. The use of homeopathic preparation of <em>Artemisia cina</em> appeared to ease their symptoms. This outcome suggests that <em>Artemisia cina</em> may hold promise as a homeopathic option for managing adenoid-related concerns in pediatric patients. However, we acknowledge that further research and a larger sample size are necessary to establish the usefulness of this approach.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 UTILIZING MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY TO ADDRESS POLLUTION IN THE BAY OF BENGAL, BANGLADESH 2023-12-31T01:52:34+00:00 Shomaya Akhter Sheikh Shohag Md Abdul Alim Md. Tohidul Islam Mohammad Nazir Hossain <p>Addressing marine pollution within Bangladesh's maritime boundaries through biotechnological methods is a vital undertaking in the battle against the environmental issues confronting this coastal nation. By harnessing biotechnology, creative solutions can be crafted to confront the various types of marine pollution, including plastic waste, oil spills, and chemical contaminants, which pose significant threats to the country's precious coastal ecosystems, biodiversity, and fisheries. These strategies employ agents for biodegradation, genetically modified organisms, and advanced filtration techniques to eliminate pollutants from aquatic environments and reinstate ecological equilibrium effectively. By integrating state-of-the-art biotechnological innovations with sustainable management practices, Bangladesh has the potential to safeguard its marine environment and ensure the lasting prosperity of its coastal communities and marine biodiversity.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PREVALENCE OF GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA IN HOSPITAL CAFETERIA FAST FOODS IN DHAKA, BANGLADESH AND THEIR RESISTANCE TO CURRENT ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS 2023-12-30T23:58:36+00:00 Supriya Ghosh Humaira Anjume M. Anwar Hossain Munawar Sultana Sharmin Rumi Alim <p>Emerging antibiotic resistance of Gram-positive bacteria leading to strikethrough infections are one of the major threats to global public health. This research aimed to determine different circulating Gram-positive bacterial species as well as their antibiotic resistance pattern along with their phylogenetic analysis. Fifty (50) Gram-positive isolates from different bacterial species were isolated from eight different hospital cafeteria fast foods of Dhaka, Bangladesh of which 58% of the isolates were from sandwiches and 42% of the isolates were from burger samples. The isolates were divided into six different groups based on different biochemical tests belonging to <em>Bacillus spp.</em> followed by <em>Planococcus spp.</em>, <em>Micrococus spp.</em>, <em>Streptococcus spp</em>., <em>Clostridium spp.</em> and <em>Staphylococcus spp.</em> Distribution of isolates varied greatly keeping the highest number of isolates from <em>Bacillus spp. </em>and lowest in<em> Staphylococcus spp.</em> BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all sequenced isolates were Gram-positive bacteria under firmicutes and shared their identity with <em>Chryseomicrobium</em> spp., <em>Sporosarcina psychrophila</em>,<em> Bacillus licheniformis. </em>About 6% of the isolates were strong biofilm former whereas 4%, 24% and 66% of the isolates were moderate biofilm formers, weak biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers respectively. About 6% of the isolates showed β-hemolytic properties. About 72% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant<em>. </em>Among the antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin showed the highest level of resistance followed by cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, meropenem and no resistance to imipenem. A higher proportion of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive isolates were revealed from the hospital cafeteria fast foods demonstrating the risky situation regarding hospital associated infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACID PROFILE OF TENUALOSA ILISHA AND CATLA CATLA AND THEIR POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO RECOMMENDED NUTRIENT INTAKE 2023-12-31T00:08:47+00:00 Eyad Ahmed Israt Jahan Nazma Shaheen <p>The current study aimed to determine the amino acid profiles and proximate compositions of two commonly consumed fish species of Bangladesh: <em>Tenualosa ilisha</em> and <em>Catla catla, </em>commonly known as Hilsha, the national fish of Bangladesh and Catla, respectively. <strong>Methodology</strong>: The fish samples were collected from two wholesale fish markets (ghaats) in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. The Amino Acid content of the selected samples was analyzed by an amino acid analyzer. Fourteen amino acids (eight essential and six non-essential) could be detected by the analyzer. <strong>Results</strong>: In the case of the essential amino acid content of the samples, threonine, valine, isoleucine, histidine, and lysine content was greater in the Hilsha fish than that of Catla. On the other hand, methionine, leucine, and phenylalanine content were higher in Catla than that in Hilsha. All six non-essential amino acids were found in greater amounts in Hilsha. Concerning the potential contribution (%) of the selected samples to the daily recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of essential amino acids in children (5-10 years), Hilsha fish potentially contributes (&gt;50%) to the daily RNI of threonine, methionine, and lysine and Catla fish potentially contributes (&gt;50%) to the daily RNI of methionine and lysine. In regards to the adult’s RNI, Hilsha potentially contributes (&gt;50%) to the daily RNI of methionine and lysine but Catla was found to contribute potentially (&gt;50%) to the daily RNI of methionine only. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both of the samples were found to be a substantial source of protein and essential amino acids to significantly contribute to the daily RNI of essential amino acids concerning children (5-10 years) for growth and adults for maintenance.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CONFRONTING ANXIETY IN THE ERA OF COVID-19: INVESTIGATING THE PREVALENCE AND IMPACT ON DAILY LIFE IN BANGLADESH 2023-12-31T00:13:55+00:00 Md. Rashadul Islam Sabrina Amita Sony Md. Ashik Imran Sadia Sinty Disha Mortuja Kamal Murshed Sutapa Talukdar Shishir Kanti Pramanik Mostafa Kamal Masud Muhammad Abdul Kalam Azad Mohammad Abdullah Al-Shoeb <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about unprecedented stress levels and has significantly impacted daily life activities, including changes in food patterns, sleep disturbances, and reduced physical activity. This survey study aims to analyze the pervasiveness of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among Bangladeshi adults and its association with daily life activities. <strong>Methods:</strong> A randomized phone number generator was utilized to approach 1438 individuals aged 18 and above, out of which 412 participants volunteered for the study. Participants' anxiety level was estimated by using the GAD-7 score. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 412 respondents, 11.89% experienced severe anxiety, while 17.72% and 39.32% suffered moderate and mild anxiety, respectively. Severe anxiety was more prevalent among women (16%) than men (9.54%). The study found that sleeping for less than eight hours was associated with an increased likelihood of severe anxiety (OR = 4.87), while fewer changes in food habits (OR = 0.27), less online exposure (OR = 0.01), and engaging in some physical activity (OR = 0.20) were associated with the reduced likelihood of anxiety. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This survey study highlights to give more emphasis of monitoring anxiety during a public health emergency like the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study establish a significant correlation between GAD and everyday life activities, emphasizing the need to prioritize mental health initiatives during such unprecedented times.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN RECOVERED FROM HYPERNATREMIA 2023-12-31T00:28:29+00:00 Sayeeda Huq Shafiqul Alam Sarker Khursheed Jahan Nazma Shaheen <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Imbalances in sodium result in acute neurologic symptoms such as seizures and impaired mental status. Studies investigating the long-term consequences of hypernatremia on cognitive, motor, and language development in children are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact of hypernatremia on children’s cognitive, motor, and language development. <strong>Methodology:</strong>It was an observational study conducted from March 2016 to March 2017 in Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. In this study,211 children with acute watery diarrhea accompanied with hypernatremia (serum sodium level ³150 mmol/L)&nbsp; who had already been enrolled in a previous observational study were prospectively followed for one&nbsp; year.The objective was to investigate if there are any long term&nbsp; neurologic and developmental consequences of hypernatremia in those children.</p> <p>Physical, cognitive, motor, and language development as well as expressive or receptive expression of the children were assessed using a standard tool at the time of discharge (Baseline) and 12 months after discharge (End line). We also assessed IQ in a subgroup of children &gt; 36 months (n=57) using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in parallel. <strong>Results:</strong> Among the 211 participants, developmental assessment on motor, cognitive, and language development test was done on 140 (66.3%) children. The mean age of the children at the time of discharge from the hospital (baseline) was 7.9±4.5 months. Compared to mild (serum Na 150 mmol/L&nbsp;to less than 160&nbsp;mmol/L), and moderately (serum Na 160&nbsp;mmol/L&nbsp;to 169&nbsp;mmol/L) hypernatremia, children with severe hypernatremia (serum sodium &gt;170mmol/L) significantly had lower mean scores on the motor, fine motor, and language development score at baseline after adjusting age and weight for the age z score. Although there was an improvement in motor, language, and socioemotional scores, significant improvement was only observed with cognitive function at the end line (p=0.002). In Mmultiple regression after adjusting for potential confounders such as levels of hypernatremia, parents’ education, age of the child, and WAZ, these factors were showed significantly associated with the cognitive function of children. There was no difference in mean IQ level performed at the end-line among the children with different level of hypernatremia (mild, moderate or severe). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Children with hypernatremia had poor developmental scores in cognitive, motor, language, and socio-emotional domains at the time of recovery from hypernatremia. However, other than cognitive score, there was no significant improvement in motor or language development at 12 months in children recovering from hypernatremia.&nbsp; Further studies are therefore warranted to reveal any association of motor or language deficit with neurological deficit in those children beyond 12 months.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 IN VITRO CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BRRI RICE VARIETIES 2023-12-31T00:33:12+00:00 Sarowar Hosen Shamim Shamsi Swastika Chakravorty <p>The present study evaluated the efficacy of five chemical fungicides, <em>viz.,</em> Capvit 50 WP, Cynil 72 WP, Kochi 80 WDG, Sinozim 50 WP and Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG along with five plant extracts, specifically <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss., <em>Adhatoda vasica </em>Nees., <em>Psidium guajava </em>L., <em>Cassia alata </em>L. and <em>Citrus limon </em>on the radial mycelial growth of two pathogenic fungi, <em>Curvularia lunata </em>and <em>Drechslera oryzae</em> associated with newly released BRRI rice varieties at varying concentrations. Capvit 50 WP exhibited complete inhibition of <em>C. lunata</em> at 300, 400 and 500 ppm concentrations&nbsp; as well as<em> D</em>. <em>oryzae </em>at 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm concentrations leading the selected fungicides, followed by Cynil 72 WP and Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG. Out of the five plant extracts, <em>P. guajava </em>demonstrated maximum radial growth inhibition (72.2%) against <em>C. lunata </em>at 20% concentration followed by <em>A. indica</em>. (56%), <em>A. vasica</em>. (52.3%), <em>C</em>.<em> alata</em> (24%) and <em>C. limon </em>(18.1%). Capvit 50 WP and Cynil 72 WP, among the fungicides, are potential <em>in vivo</em> controls for the tested pathogens associated with rice varieties. Additionally, out of the five plant extracts, <em>Psidium guajava</em> L. can be effective against <em>C. lunata</em>, while <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss. is a promising botanical fungicide against <em>D. oryzae</em>.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LEONURUS SIBIRICUS AND PREDICTION OF ITS BIOACTIVE COMPOUND-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN HOMO SAPIENS 2023-12-31T00:37:38+00:00 Abdirizak Abdirahman Osman Ahmed Abdukadir Abdi Omar Mst. Ananya Khatun Md. Ramjan Sheikh Md. Suzaul Alam Md. Maruf Uz Zaman Md. Tanvir Abedin Md. Abu Sayed <p>This study was conducted to investigate the proximate composition of <em>L. sibiricus</em>, an herbaceous medicinal plant, and explore the potential effects of its bioactive compounds, rutin and quercetin. Samples were collected from Dinajpur and Nilphamari to assess proximate composition. Proximate composition analysis revealed variations of ash, starch, fat, protein, non-reducing sugar (sucrose), invert (total) sugar, and reducing sugar contents of <em>L. sibiricus</em>. These findings indicate that proximate compositions and mineral contents varied depending on the growing place, soil and environmental factors. Furthermore, bioinformatics tools were utilized to investigate the effects of bioactive compounds rutin and quercetin of <em>L. sibiricus</em> in <em>Homo sapiens</em>. In this study, both rutin and quercetin interacted with 10 proteins, separately. Each individual protein interacted with another 10 proteins and found 100 proteins for rutin and 99 proteins for quercetin. However, 199 proteins were used to blast search in NCBI database and blasted results found only 177 proteins. Venn diagram analysis showed only four (4) common proteins interacted with rutin and quercetin. Functional annotation analysis revealed both positive and negative regulations of rutin and quercetin for biological process, molecular functions and cellular component in human health. Interestingly, KEGG pathway, compound and drug analysis exhibited that some potential drugs have already been discovered by rutin and quercetin that are mostly used for vascular protectant, ophthalmic, liver function improving agent and antimicrobial activity. A number of genes or enzymes involved in rutin and quercetin biosynthesis pathway retrieved in KEGG database. This study revealed that genetic engineering might enhances the biosynthesis of rutin and quercetin in honeyweed that could be utilized for production of valuable drug in industry for controlling different human and animal diseases in Bangladesh.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PREVALENCE OF BACTERIURIA, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PATTERN AND EFFLUX PUMPS ACTIVITY IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC UTI PATIENTS 2023-12-31T00:55:29+00:00 Apurbo Roy Rahena Yasmin Zimam Mahmud Farhana Tasnim Chowdhuary Md. Mohasin <p><strong>Rationale:</strong> Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes. In developing countries, impairments in the defense system,&nbsp; metabolic disorder during diabetes, and incomplete bladder emptying all contribute to the pathogenesis of UTI in diabetic patients. This comparative study is undertaken to reveal the prevalence of uropathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and to assess hematological biomarker in diabetic and non-diabetic UTI patients. <strong>Methods:</strong> The prevalence of uropathogens were tested in 40 diabetic and 40 non-diabetic UTI patients. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates were assessed by the Kirby-Buer disc-diffusion method. Moreover, the bacterial load, Gram-staining, biochemical and serological assays were performed using appropriate methods. <strong>Results: </strong>The findings showed that diabetic patients are more likely to UTI compared to non-diabetic patients. In terms of uropathogenic prevalence, 61% <em>Escherichia coli</em>, 34%<em> Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, 2% <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> 2% <em>Pseudomonas aureginosa</em> and 1% others. The antimicrobial resistance profile demonstrated that most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin but susceptible to azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the drug efflux pumps activity and bacterial burden were significantly high among antimicrobial resistant bacterial isolates. Besides, the C-reactive protein, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C, neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly high in diabetic UTI patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found&nbsp; <em>E. coli</em> was the most frequent bacteria isolates, and this observation is consistent others. Diabetic UTI patients are more vulnerable with high bacterial burden and systemic inflammation.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND MINERAL CONTENT OF EDIBLE CUTTLEFISH (SEPIELLA INERMIS), SQUID (UROTEUTHIS DUVAUCELI) AND OCTOPUS (CISTOPUS TAIWANICUS) OF BANGLADESH 2023-12-31T01:43:45+00:00 Md. Sagir Ahmed Noor Aida Arfin Mysha Mahjabin Sujan Kumar Datta <p>Cephalopods are valuable in fisheries and are consumed as seafood in various cuisines around the world. A study was conducted to know the proximate compositions (protein, ash, fat, carbohydrate and moisture) and minerals (calcium, phosphorus and iron) of cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes) of Bangladesh. Three species, cuttlefish (<em>Sepiella inermis</em>), squid (<em>Uroteuthis duvauceli</em>)&nbsp;and octopus (<em>Cistopus taiwanicus</em>) were selected on the basis of their availability. The average protein was estimated 16.14%, 15.04%, and 14.68% for Cuttlefish, Squid, and Octopus, respectively whereas the amount of carbohydrate was 0.59%, 0.71%, and 0.53% for the three species. The ANOVA test of the findings of the proximate components showed no significant differences among the three groups (p &lt; 0.05). All the three cephalopods have shown quite the same amount of protein (16.14%, 15.04%, 14.68%) as in commonly consumed fish (rui, catla) and shrimp. The findings suggest that these organisms serve as outstanding sources of protein while containing minimal amounts of fat. The lower amount of fat of cephalopods also proves them leaner than other groups in the comparison. Thus, cephalopods can be a promising source of animal protein in Bangladesh. Both the octopus and cuttlefish showed a good amount of&nbsp;calcium and phosphorus, while the squid proved to be an ideal source of iron. This study proposes to investigate the potential of other cephalopods in the human diet further by undertaking a more thorough analysis that includes all necessary micro and macronutrients.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY, ANTIBACTERIAL ASSAY AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF ULVA INTESTINALIS ALGAE FROM THE BAY OF BENGAL, BANGLADESH 2023-12-31T01:47:57+00:00 Md. Mafuz Akter Tubril FBKM Abrar Hamim Md. Mahfuzur Rahman M. Mahfuza Khatun <p>Seaweed is widely popular across the globe for its nutritional and biological properties. After delimiting the maritime boundary on Bangladesh, research on seaweeds is gaining momentum. <em>Ulva intestinalis</em> is one of the seaweeds found in the St. Martin’s Island of Bangladesh, and the present study investigated the presence of potentially bioactive compounds through phytochemical screening and proximate analysis of <em>Ulva intestinalis </em>along with cytotoxicity test and antibacterial activity<em>.&nbsp; </em>Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of <em>Ulva</em> revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and coumarins. The cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity was also found to be significant by the algal extract. From the quantitative test of nutrients, it demonstrated that the seaweed contains 15.41% of protein, 51.79% of carbohydrate, 1.21% of fat, 3.74% of fiber, 18.81% ash, and 12.78% moisture. Additionally, the presence of vitamin B12 was promising (1300 µg/100 g). Interestingly, heavy metals were not detected in<em> Ulva intestinalis </em>whereas other micronutrients were present<em>.&nbsp; </em>Comparatively, the higher ZOI were showed in <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp </em>and<em> E.coli</em> than <em>micrococcus sp </em>which indicates higher antibacterial activity of the species. The result of the brine shrimp lethality test, greater cytotoxicity of crude algal extract showed a significant LC<sub>50 </sub>value with higher concentrations.&nbsp; As a result, it is plausible that <em>Ulva intestinalis,</em> from the Bay of Bengal, has the potential antibacterial and cytotoxic activities and might also serve as a source of new bioactive compounds. Moreover, further research is needed to perform for validation of the seaweed to introduce its medicinal activity or nutritional supplement potentiality in industrial scale.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 REPORTING TWO RARE MUTATIONS WITH ASSOCIATED CLINICAL FEATURES IN BANGLADESHI HB E/Β THALASSEMIA PATIENTS 2023-12-31T01:58:01+00:00 Md. Abdul Aziz Nabiha Tasneem Khan Waqar Ahmed Khan Mustak Ibn Ayub Sabina Yeasmin <p>Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Bangladesh. We have performed an investigation among 360 patients with Hb E/β-thalassemia to understand the heterogeneity in thalassemia severity among Bangladeshi patients. The analysis revealed that one of the common mutations CD26 (G&gt;A) is found with two rare mutations HBB: c.-79A&gt;G (-29A&gt;G) and HBB: c.45_46insG (CD14/15 (+G)) in two patients individually which are not prevalent in geographically adjacent populations. Among these two rare mutations, -29A&gt;G is located at the ‘TATA’ box region of the promoter sequence regulating transcription initiation and CD14/15 (+G) leads to a premature stop codon. We performed transcription factor binding site prediction analysis and found that ‘AP-1’, ‘c-Jun’, and ‘kr’ transcription factors bind at the ‘TATA’ box region. From this analysis, we can predict that -29A&gt;G mutation can alter the level of HBB transcription whereas the CD14/15 (+G) mutation causes a truncated (and possibly non-functional) HBB protein. Aligned with such assumption, it was observed from patients’ medical history that, the patient who had CD14/15 (+G) and CD26 (G&gt;A) mutations was severely blood transfusion-dependent whereas the patient carrying -29A&gt;G and CD26 (G&gt;A) mutations was moderately transfusion dependent. The comprehensive analysis of the mutations offers crucial insights and approaches for enhanced management of thalassemia among the Bangladeshi population.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF FISH FEED TO THE GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF FISHES: COST-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF NUTRITIOUS FISHES 2023-12-31T02:08:36+00:00 Mohammad Abduz Zaher Mohua Sadia Islam Sumaiya Mamun Trisha Paul <p>Fish is the rich source of good quality protein. Per capita annual fish intake of Bangladesh is 21.90 kg and annual total need of fish is 42.38 lac mt. The current study's objective was to ascertain the nutritional value of various fish farmed in Bangladesh's Biofloc farm and regularly consumed by Bangladeshis by using nutrient rich formulated fish feed. The fish used in the study were tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) and shorputi fish (Systomus sarana). These fish species were cultured in a Biofloc setting. The edible portion of the samples had its composition closely investigated. The moisture, ash, and protein contents were determined using the AOAC-approved drying, Muffle-furnace, and Macro-Kjeldahl procedures, respectively. The edible proportion of fish in the current study ranged from 46.45 to 58.33%. The value for tilapia was the greatest (58.33%) while the value for shorputi was the lowest (46.45%). For some of the fish samples used in the investigation, the moisture content was found to be between 74.04 and 77.53%. Shorputi's lowest value was discovered to be 74.45%. For several fish samples, the ash concentration was determined to be between 1.04 and 1.31%. Shorputi had the greatest ash concentration (1.31%), while tilapia had the lowest (0.95%). Tilapia had a high protein content (23.77%). The study's most recent findings demonstrate that the farm formulated feed had a beneficial effect on the development and nutritional status of fish raised in biofloc systems.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ANALYSIS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS IN MILK SUPPLY CHAIN 2023-12-31T02:13:09+00:00 Farhana Rinky Sompa Reza Abira Nowar Supriya Ghosh Asma Rahman Sharmin Rumi Alim <p>The widespread consumption of milk for its nutritional value and health benefits brings the risk of milk-borne diseases due to the presence of various microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This has led to an increased focus on ensuring the safety of milk products across the supply chain by dairy industries. The study aimed to evaluate microbiological parameters and detect multi-antibiotic-resistant pathogens at three specific supply points and to explore the association between the presence of residual antibiotics and the resistant isolates in milk samples. About 50 milk samples, including raw, soon-after-processed, packaged marketed pasteurized, and UHT milk, were subjected to microbiological analysis. This involved assessing the total bacterial count (TBC) and total coliform count (TCC), conducting antibiotic susceptibility tests through disk and well diffusion assays, detecting virulence genes in multi-antibiotic resistant isolates using gene-specific PCR, and analyzing residual antibiotics by HPLC. The study revealed that the quality of raw milk samples was unacceptable (TBC &gt;4.5x10<sup>7</sup> CFU/mL and TCC &gt;5.6x10<sup>4 </sup>CFU/mL), while pasteurized samples from processing plants had lower counts than those from retail stores (TBC &gt;5x10<sup>5</sup> CFU/mL and TCC &gt;1.6x10<sup>4 </sup>CFU/mL) indicating post-pasteurization contamination. About 70.37% of the isolates were Gram-negative, with <em>Escherichia coli</em> (21.4%) and <em>Vibrio</em> (18.8%) being the most prevalent. Resistance to antibiotics was substantial, particularly against ampicillin (86.3%), tetracycline (76%), and ciprofloxacin (58.9%). Gene-specific PCR analysis detected <em>uid</em>A, <em>opr</em>L, and <em>opr</em>I virulence genes in multi-drug-resistant <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas sp. </em>respectively. The study also revealed a direct association between the presence of residual antibiotics and the resistant isolates, emphasizing the need for dairy industry improvements. As high bacterial counts in milk can pose health risks by fostering antibiotic-resistant pathogens, it is essential to mitigate microbiological contamination in the milk supply chain through the implementation of various precautionary measures.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023