Bioresearch Communications - (BRC) <p>Bioresearch Communications (BRC) is an open access, peer-reviewed biennial official journal of Graduate Biochemists Organization (GBA), Bangladesh. It is an International Journal which accepts original research work in different disciplines of biological science. There are two issues (January and July) of this journal per year. BRC is a non -profit Journal. Presently we are publishing only online issues.</p> Graduate Biochemists Association (GBA) en-US Bioresearch Communications - (BRC) 2411-0485 <p>Author(s) will retain the copyright of their own articles. By submitting the article to Bioresearch Communications (BRC), the author(s) have granted the BRC for the use of the article.</p> Sustainable improvement of rice growth under salinity stress using an endophytic fungus-based biofertilizer <p>Salinity stress adversely affects rice (<em>Oryza sativa L.)</em> growth, development and overall productivity. Multiple strategies have been implemented to enhance the resilience of rice plants, enabling them to grow better in saline environments. Use of biofertilizers, a sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers, has gained significant attention in modern agriculture due to their potential to improve soil fertility, enhance crop productivity, and mitigate environmental concerns. Biofertilizers encompass a diverse group of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and algae, which interact with plants through various mechanisms. These beneficial microbes have been reported to convert atmospheric nitrogen into plant-available forms and break down insoluble phosphates and zinc complexes in the soil. Additionally, they can also produce growth regulators, enhance nutrient availability, and protect plants against pathogens.</p> <p>In our previous study, a salt-tolerant endophytic fungus isolated from the halophytic wild rice, <em>Oryza coarctata</em>, was identified as <em>Aspergillus welwitschiae Oc</em>streb1 by whole genome sequence analysis. During the in-vitro experiments, the endophyte showed several plant growth promoting activities such as, zinc and phosphate solubilization, siderophore, IAA, and ACC-deaminase production, nitrogen fixation, etc. in both normal and 900 mM salt stress. In this study, the endophyte was used to formulate a biofertilizer in combination with talcum powder to enhance the growth and yield of rice plants under salinity stress. This research investigated the effectiveness of the biofertilizer in four distinct salinity tanks under both non-saline and 6 dS/m saline conditions, each containing three different varieties of rice.&nbsp; Treatment of BRRI dhan28 (BD-28), BRRI dhan67 (BD-67) and BRRI dhan87 (BD-87) rice plants with the formulated biofertilizer significantly enhanced their yield in both non-saline and saline conditions. Among the three rice varieties, BD-28 showed the highest significant &nbsp;(<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) yield increase, with 104.20% under normal conditions and 3080.56% under salt stress. BD-67 exhibited a 45.15% increase in normal conditions and 153.64% under salt stress (P&lt;0.05). BD-87 showed a significant yield increase only under salt stress, at 293.63% (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05).</p> <p>From the results of the study, it can be proposed that the formulated biofertilizer is a potential eco-friendly and cost-effective solution to improve cultivation and yield of rice in the highly saline coastal regions of Bangladesh.</p> Amit Chowdhury Md. Iyasir Arafat Arifa Akhter Airin Tomalika Azim Rifat Ara Begum Md Rakibul Islam Md. Sazzadur Rahman Zeba Islam Seraj Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1474 1481 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74492 Genetic landscape of the people of Bangladesh depicted with 17 Y-Chromosome-Specific microsatellites <p>Seventeen microsatellite loci from the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome were typed using AmpF<em>l</em>STR® Yfiler<sup>® </sup>PCR amplification systems in 404 male subjects belonging to the three largest ethnic groups in Bangladesh. A total of 150 haplotypes from the Chakma, 144 from the Tripura, and 110 from the Khasia were detected with a corresponding discrimination capacity of 73.885%, 65.563%, and 81.250%, respectively. The highest allele frequency of 0.828 was detected in DYS391 locus in the Tripuras, while the lowest allele frequency of 0.009 was detected at the same locus for the Chakma population. The highest gene diversity (0.964) was observed at DYS385a/b locus in the Khasias, while the lowest gene diversity (0.301) was detected at DYS391 locus in Tripura<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">s</span> population. The overall haplotype diversity for the studied populations was 0.986141. Both the Neighbour-Joining tree and pairwise genetic distances showed that Chakma lies closer to a clade consisting of Tripuras (Khagrachari, Bangladesh) and Tripuri (Tripura, India). In contrast, the Khasias demonstrated a close affinity with the Oraon (Chhattisgarh, India), followed by the Santals. The Y-STR haplotype matching probabilities within and between populations demonstrated that the Chakma, Tripura, and Khasia were 100% genetically distinct. The studied ethnic populations exhibited higher frequency for haplogroups L and Q as opposed to haplogroups R1a, H, and L found in the mainstream Bengali population. The Median-joining networking showed haplogroups L and R1a have the most compact clustering within populations, followed by haplogroups Q and H. The presence of haplogroup R1a suggests that Bengali may have originated through west-to-east migration, whereas haplogroups L and Q distribution in the studied tribes reveal a very significant affinity with the South-East Asian populations and may have shared a common ancestral origin with the Mongoloid stock populations.</p> Md. Mahamud Hasan Kanchan Chakma Saikat Bhattacharjee Mohammad Abul Hasnat Sharif Akhteruzzaman Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1482 1488 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74500 Morphometric and DNA-based identification of horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802) and Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) from Bangladesh coast <p>Horseshoe crabs are the living fossils of xiphosurans that have survived for over 200 million years without morphological change and records fossil dating back 500 million years. A study was conducted on morphometric and molecular characterization of horseshoe crab <em>Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda</em> (Latreille, 1802) and <em>Tachypleus gigas</em> (Müller, 1785) from Bangladesh waters. A total of ten samples of <em>C. rotundicauda</em> and one sample of <em>T. gigas</em> were collected from Dublar Char, Sundarbans and Cox’s bazar from June 2016 to May 2017 and February 2024, respectively. Among them, four specimens were male and seven female. Morphometric measurements were taken from all the collected samples and differentiated male and female based on the second pair of legs, the pedipalps. The species were genetically identified using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. An average length of about 670.5 bp nucleotide sequences were obtained. Average percentage of nucleotide frequencies were T (30.3), C (16.3), A (34.4) and G (19.0) for <em>C. rotundicauda</em> and T (34.45), C (22.01), A (27.91) and C (15.63) for <em>T. gigas</em>. GC content analysis showed that average GC 36.20% and AT 63.80%. The average GC content at the 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> codon position were 38.82%, 37.87% and 31.92% respectively.&nbsp; This is the first report of DNA barcoding of a living fossil <em>C. rotundicauda </em>and <em>T. gigas </em>from Bangladesh and will serve as baseline information for future research, conservation and management of this invaluable primitive creature.</p> Wahida Haque Sanjana Enam Md. Tarikul Islam Sujan Kumar Datta Md. Sagir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1489 1494 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74568 Checklist of Deuteromycetous fungi of Bangladesh – III <p>Sixly two species of anamorphic fungi under 17 genera belonging to the&nbsp; Form family &nbsp;Sphaeropsidaceae and Melanchoniaaece in Bangladesh from 1952 till date are enlisted in this account. The alphabetical checklist of the genera is provided herewith. Further updates will be added in the subsequent versions of the publication.</p> Shamim Shamsi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1495 1500 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74570 Evaluation of vitamin D status and its association with dietary patterns and sociodemographic factors among adolescents attending the outpatient department of selected hospitals in Dhaka city, Bangladesh <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The current study aims to evaluate the vitamin D status of adolescents undergoing treatment at selected tertiary hospitals’ outpatient departments (OPD) in Dhaka city and to look at the relationships between vitamin D levels and sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study followed a cross-sectional study design targeting adolescents (10–19 years old) who came to the OPD of selected tertiary hospitals. Following the convenience sampling procedure, a total of 384 adolescents were included in the study whose medical records were available with vitamin D status. Vitamin D status was evaluated based on medical reports. In addition, dietary habits were recorded using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To ascertain the factors influencing the individual’s vitamin D status, a multinomial logistic regression model was constructed. <strong>Results:</strong> Approximately two-thirds of the respondents were female, and over 58% of the respondents were young adolescents (ages 10 to 14). It was discovered that 32% of the adolescents lacked enough vitamin D, while 36.7% of them had insufficient levels of this nutrient. The deficiency level was considerably higher in older adolescents (15–19 years old). Girls were inadequate by 36.2% as opposed to boys, who were lacking by 24.6%. Deficits in vitamin D were more prevalent in women with low-paying employment, mothers with primary/below or no institutional education, mothers from lower-income families, etc., in addition to other sociodemographic characteristics. In terms of eating patterns, the study suggested that participants who frequently ate foods strong in vitamin D, like dairy, meat, eggs, nuts, fatty fish, fruits, and vegetables, as well as Horlicks, showed a decreased incidence of vitamin D deficiency. The mother's occupation (service holder), the less frequent use of dairy, meat, fortified oil, and Horlicks were discovered to be highly predictive factors of vitamin D deficiency, according to a multinomial logistic regression study. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the current study, eating foods high in vitamin D, such as dairy, beef, fortified oil, and Horlicks, may raise adolescents’ vitamin D levels. Therefore, if any awareness programs or campaigns could be conducted for both parents and adolescents, it might be beneficial for reducing vitamin D deficiency.</p> Sanni Jaiswal Md. Nizamul Hoque Bhuiyan Khaleda Islam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1501 1515 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74572 Nutrient Composition of Nine Festival Dishes Obtained from A Recipe Survey Among Lower to Middle-Income Households in Selected Urban Areas <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>Estimation of nutrient content of a recipe by a recipe calculation method may be cost‐effective and alternative to the chemical analysis for a range of applications, laboratory analysis of standardized recipes is considered a more authentic and accurate source of recipe nutrient data. Food composition data (FCD) regarding festival foods and dishes is very scanty in local and global food composition tables (FCT). The present study, thus, conducted a recipe survey on the ingredient profile of festival recipes consumed by lower to middle-income households in Bangladesh followed by proximate analysis of standard recipes obtained by collapsing similar recipes. Unanalyzed nutrients were obtained by data compilation from local and global food composition databanks (FCDB).&nbsp; <strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional recipe survey was conducted sequentially on festival foods and dishes among purposefully selected housewives residing at different areas of Dinajpur district and Dhaka city. The study instrument was a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Nine homemade festival recipes out of 40 recipes cited viz., plain polao, beef bhuna, fish fry, chicken bhuna, payesh, beef biriyani, chinese vegetable, chicken roast and baked fish were selected and standardized according to the method established in our laboratory. The selected recipes were prepared and analyzed for proximate composition along with an estimation of the cooking yield factor. Content of moisture, ash, protein, total fat, total dietary fiber (TDF), available carbohydrates, and calorie values of nine selected dishes were determined using standard operating procedures (SOP) established on the basis of AOAC methods. Precision and accuracy of analytical values were checked as part of Quality Assurance Program (QAP). Data compilation of missing values for vitamins and minerals was conducted according to FAO data compilation toolkit. <strong>Result: </strong>Moisture content ranges from 30.42-70.75%, protein content ranges from 2.60-35.70%, fat content ranges from 2.61-22.53%, ash content ranges from 0.6241-8.8%, TDF ranges from 0.58-8.49%, carbohydrates ranges from 0.65-45.7% and energy content ranges 101.5-368.4 kcal/100g fresh sample. The cooking yield ranges from 40.96-96.82%, which is highest in plain polao and lowest in fish fry. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The data generated from this study can be used as reliable data which will enrich the national food composition table.</p> Fatema Tuj Jahan Mili Abu Torab MA Rahim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1516 1523 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74573 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Potential Health Risk of Selected Fish Species in Dhaka District <p>Fish is a rich source of quality protein and fatty acids. Bangladesh's average daily fish consumption is 67.8 grams per people. Fish species are also prone to heavy metal contamination from their surrounding environment. The main objective of this research was to assess the degree of risk associated with the consumption of various fish species in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Three fish species—Tilapia (<em>Oreochromis mossambicus</em>), Shorputi (<em>Systomus sarana</em>), and Mola (<em>Amblypharyngodon mola</em>)—from three local markets in Savar Union, Dhaka, Bangladesh, were selected for analysis. The Kjeldahl technique, Folch method, and several formulae were used to determine the protein, fat, ash, and moisture content for the proximate analysis. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), total target hazard quotient (TTHQ), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR) were used to evaluate the danger to human health. Tilapia had the highest moisture and lipid content, whereas Shorputi and Mola had the highest protein and ash contents, ranging from 20.77% to 18.16%, respectively. The mean concentration of heavy metals in fish was determined to be Pb&gt;Ni&gt;Cr&gt;Cd in this study. Every fish species had extremely high levels of lead (Pb), with the Shorputi fish having the highest levels. Fish from the Shorputi species had the highest EDI value. Pb&gt;Ni&gt;Cr&gt;Cd was the trace element EDI for adults. Among all species, only Pd had a THQ value higher than 1. The CR value across all species were within E-3 and E-6 range, while the HI value was &gt;1. In conclusion, the highest average Pb concentrations were detected in Shorputi, while the highest amounts of Cd, Cr, and Ni were observed in Tilapia. The findings of this study recommended that the Bangladeshi government regularly assess the levels of dangerous heavy metal and metalloid contamination in the daily meals of its citizens in order to enforce regulatory limits and determine the likelihood of long-term exposure.</p> Sumaiya Mamun Naznin Nahar Mohammad Ata Ullah Mohammad Abduz Zaher Trisha Paul Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1524 1531 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74574 Underscoring the looming threat of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli: A comparative analysis across urinary tract infections, diarrheal illnesses and healthy controls <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of <em>E. coli </em>resistance patterns, focusing on isolates from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), diarrheal illnesses, and healthy controls. <strong>Methods: </strong>The study collected and identified <em>E. coli</em> isolates from 36 individuals: 17 with UTIs (urine samples), 6 with diarrhea (stool samples), and 13 healthy controls (stool samples). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed to assess resistance against ten antibiotics from eight classes. Fluoroquinolone resistance was further evaluated against four drugs (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin). Additionally, molecular analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in <em>gyrA, gyrB, parC</em>, and <em>parE </em>genes was performed on two selected isolates (U44 and U46) by genome sequencing. <strong>Results: </strong>Chloramphenicol and meropenem displayed the highest efficacy (&gt;70% sensitivity), while AZM, AML, NA and SXT showed the highest resistance. UTI isolates exhibited higher resistance than diarrheal and healthy control counterparts. Worryingly, 58% of isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR), with most (13/21) originating from UTI patients. The presence of MDR <em>E. coli </em>in five healthy individuals suggests potential carriage and community transmission. Fluoroquinolone resistance was particularly alarming, with moxifloxacin showing the highest resistance (80.95%).&nbsp; Molecular analysis confirmed mutations in all three fluoroquinolone resistance determining genes except <em>gyrB</em>. S84L and D87N dual mutations in the QRDR of <em>gyrA</em> was found in both isolates. S80I and S458A single mutations were observed in <em>parC </em>and<em> parE, </em>respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study findings highlight the widespread prevalence of antibiotic resistance in <em>E. coli</em> and the urgent need for alternative treatment strategies.</p> Israt Dilruba Mishu Sarmin Akter Fatema Jannat Abonee Sabita Rezwana Rahman Md. Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1532 1538 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74577 Characterization of complete mitochondrial genome of Labeo rohita from Bangladesh <p><em>Labeo rohita</em>, commonly known as rui/rohu possesses an important role in agricultural and economic aspects in Bangladesh. This study aimed to characterize the mitochondrial genome of this economically important fish species. Primers (24 pairs) were designed to amplify the whole genome and most of the regions contained 700 to 800bp. In this study, nucleotide sequences of 16,607 bp of the mitochondrial genome of <em>L. rohita</em> were determined for the first time from Bangladesh, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one D-loop region. All of the genes were similar in size compared to other fish mitochondrial genomes. The gene arrangements, and intergenic and gene overlapping nucleotides of the present study, were similar to that of other <em>Labeo</em> genera so far reported. The phylogenetic tree shows 100% similarity in <em>L. rohita</em> mitochondrial genomes collected from two different areas of Bangladesh. This nucleotide sequence data of the mitogenome of <em>L. rohita </em>would provide necessary information for further studies, including population genetics of carp fishes.</p> Hawa Jahan Moumita Chakraborty Mohammad Shamimul Alam Rowshan Ara Begum Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1539 1544 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74578 Adherence to Essential Nutritional and Lifestyle Practices among the Residents of Urban and Rural Settings during COVID-19 at Jashore District in Bangladesh <p><strong>Background</strong>: High population density makes Bangladesh more vulnerable to a pandemic situation like COVID-19. It is evident from the scientific literature that proper nutritional practices might be effective in preventing various infections. The objective of this research work was to explore the nutritional as well as lifestyle practices among the urban-rural residents of Jashore district and to assess the association of those practices with their residential settings. <strong>Methods</strong>: It was a cross-sectional study where about 134 respondents (18-50 years) were selected by convenience sampling method from eight rural and seven urban areas of Jashore district in Bangladesh. Association between residence type and various concerned practices have been explored by Pearson chi-square test, binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. <strong>Results</strong>: It was found from the results of binary and multinomial logistic regression that, the intake of vitamin D rich foods (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.48,8.07), folic acid rich foods (OR:0.20; 95% CI:0.09,0.46), vitamin B12 rich foods (OR:0.11; 95% CI:0.02,0.52), iron rich foods (OR:0.23; 95% CI:0.08,0.66), and melatonin rich foods (OR:0.15; 95% CI:0.05,0.40) were significantly associated (P&lt;.05) with residential area (urban and rural) of the respondents. On the other hand, no association was found (P&gt;.05) between other immune-boosting nutrient-rich foods such as complex carbohydrates, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, Pyridoxine, zinc and selenium rich foods and respondents’ residential area. Moroever, the association was not observed (P&gt;.05) in case of supplement intake of various immune boosting nutrients and area. Among the lifestyle practices, no significant association was found regarding sleep patterns among the respondents but various daily physical movements (OR: 0.19; 95% CI:0.07,0.48) were found higher among the rural respondents. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Daily intake of vitamin D rich foods was found higher among the urban respondents but daily intake of folic acid, vitamin B12, iron and melatonin rich foods were found higher among the rural residents. It was also observed that the physical activities were better maintained among the rural respondents than their urban counterparts.</p> Eyad Ahmed Sabrina Zaman Israt Jahan Humaira Sadia Rakibul Islam Razia Sultana Obeydul Islam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1545 1552 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74579 Effect of Self-talking and Determination on Performance in Students <p>We are guided by our thoughts and determination. The problem of the present study was to investigate whether there is any effect of self-talking and determination on enhancing performance. The current study aimed to ascertain whether future performance is impacted by self-talking and determination. We hypothesized that in order to improve performance, self-talking and determination are beneficial. We selected 28 students from class VI and then randomly divided them into experimental and control groups. We taught the experimental participants how to apply self-talking and determination positively. Then both groups were given some tasks such as handwriting, drawing, and talking about themselves. We found that the mean scores of times spent in performance for experimental and control groups were 631.50 seconds and 521.50 seconds, respectively, which differed significantly at the .046 (α=.05) level with a&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; t-value of 2.09 (df=26). We came to the conclusion that self-talking and determination have a favorable impact on improving performance because the experimental group performed for a significantly longer time than the control group.</p> Aminul Islam Tasneem Alam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1553 1556 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74580 Development and Validation of the Motivation for Healthy Eating Behavior Scale (MHEBS) in the Bengali-Speaking Adults <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to assess the motivation for healthy eating behavior in Bengali-speaking adults.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was cross-sectional in nature and was conducted online via Google Forms. A total of 220 Bengali-speaking adults participated in the study. A literature review was conducted to generate an item pool regarding motivation for healthy eating. The content validity of the items was evaluated by an expert panel from related fields. Based on their responses, the items were modified, and 15 items were assessed for face validity. The scale’s construct validity was assessed by performing an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The reliability of the scale was examined using the internal consistency reliability coefficient or Cronbach’s alpha. To establish the convergent and divergent validity of the scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) scale were used.</p> <p><strong>Major Findings</strong>: The MHEBS showed good content and face validity. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was in the acceptable range with Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.820. The EFA suggested a three-factor scale structure, and the factors were “<em>benefits of healthy eating”</em>, “<em>external regulation”</em>, and “<em>affordability”</em>. The scale also showed acceptable convergent and divergent validity with SWLS and FCV-19S respectively.</p> <p><strong>Implications:</strong> MHEBS — a 15-item 5-point Likert scale — is the first developed scale to measure the motivation for healthy eating behavior in the Bengali-speaking adult population. The scale would help identify what motivates Bengali adults to for maintaining healthy eating behavior. In addition, it would aid program planners to effectively design health promotion strategies as well as health practitioners and dietitians to counsel patients before applying dietary behavior change interventions.&nbsp;</p> Abira Nowar Rivu Basu Shahadat Hossain Antora Jabbar Sharmin Rumi Alim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1557 1564 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74581 Vegetable Recipe Variations in Urban and Periurban Bangladesh: Recipe Survey, Recipe Standardization, And Nutrient Analysis <p>Recipe variation has social, economic, geographical, cultural, and other roots. The Analysis of each recipe’s composition is not plausible from a chemical as well as an economic point of view. Instead, a standardized recipe from a set of similar recipes could be ideal for cooking and chemical analysis of the nutrient composition of cooked recipes. This type of data has been found to be scanty in conventional food composition tables (FCT) across the globe. Recipe calculation from raw ingredients has always been problematic because cooking is regarded as an unpredictable process on every occasion. Therefore, analysis of cooked recipes is preferred for FCTs which are used for more authentic and accurate in menu planning for individual or community health purposes. The present study seeks to partially fill the information gap on compositional data for vegetable and leafy vegetable recipes consumed by the lower to middle-income urban and peri-urban households of Bangladesh because they have been observed to be the main consumer of these recipes. The study was conducted into three phases. In phase I, a recipe survey was conducted among purposely selected housewives (n=100) representing Dhaka (n=33), Rangpur (n=37), Rajshahi (n=18) and Chattogram (n=12) divisions. In phase II, 10 selected homemade vegetable and leafy vegetable recipes were selected and standardized from the most cited recipe list obtained from consecutive recipe surveys. In phase III, chemical analyses for proximate nutrients were carried out followed by compilation of vitamin and mineral values from local and global food composition databases. The result revealed that the Moisture, Ash, Protein, Fat, Total Dietary Fiber and Available Carbohydrate content (g/100 g) and Calorie of the samples ranged from 71.57-83.68%, 1.30-4.94%, 1.17-5.86%, 0.20-9.18%, 2.63-7.28%, 1.43-14.66%, and 64.94 to 126.28 Kcal respectively. Method validation and analytical quality assurance program was carried out along with all standard operating procedure (SOP) to ensure quality data generation. Therefore, the data obtained in this study can be taken as reliable data which will enrich the food composition database of Bangladesh.</p> Sanjida Nur-A Afrin Fahmida Akter Abu Torab MA Rahim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1565 1572 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74582 Factors associated with adolescent food Security and nutritional status in a selected rural area of the central region of Bangladesh <p>Food insecurity affects physical growth, health of adolescents and nutritional status while food insecurity is common in rural area of Bangladesh. During adolescence, individuals have gone through series of key transitions into adulthood which may be hindered by food insecurity and poor nutritional status. The present study aimed to identify the most relevant factors that may be associated with food security and nutritional status of adolescents. Additionally, this study also tried to explore the association between adolescent food security and their nutritional status. This Cross-sectional study was carried out among 317 unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in a selected rural area of central region of Bangladesh. Multistage cluster sampling and purposive sampling were followed to select households and enroll adolescents into the study. Other than descriptive statistics, chi-square test was performed to test the difference between groups as well as to evaluate expected associations between different predictors and outcome variables. Additionally, univariate logistic regression was carried out to estimate the effect of predictor variables on the outcome variable. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to control the potential confounder effects upon desired outcome variables. It is observed that around 32.5% adolescents were food secure whereas 67.5% adolescents were food insecure. Our study also reveals that two predictor variables such as family income and family size had significant association with food security where odds of becoming food secure were higher among the adolescents from higher income families (AOR=6.1; 95% CI=2.240-16.718) and smaller families (AOR=3.4; 95% CI=1.563, 7.495). Furthermore, prevalence of underweight, normal nutritional status and overweight was 13%, 83% and 4% respectively where adolescent educational qualification and occupation were significantly associated with normal nutritional status. Adolescents with higher educational qualification (AOR=12.3;95% CI=5.270,28.479) and involved in work (AOR=12.3;95% CI=5.270,28.479) were more likely to have normal nutritional status compared to those who were primarily educated and not involved in work. Further study is recommended to replicate the findings and to generate new knowledge about relevant factors associated with adolescent food security and nutritional status.</p> Nazifa Akter Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1573 1582 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74583 Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanolic extract of Seaweed Asparagopsis spp. Isolated from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh <p>The marine zone of Bangladesh covers a great diversity of natural ecosystems including a marine environment rich in commercially important seaweeds. Seaweeds are widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, chemical, antibacterial, and food industries globally. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Japan are the top five nations in the world for seaweed production. In recent times, Bangladesh has initiated comprehensive research endeavours focused on seaweed, recognizing its immense potential across diverse sectors. Seaweed in Bangladesh is primarily harvested for various purposes, including food, medicine, and industrial applications. In this study, red seaweed <em>Asparagopsis</em> collected from the coast of Saint Martin’s island of the Bay of Bengal was tested for its bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory test was done using carrageenan suspension and three analgesic tests e.g. hot plate test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, and formic acid-induced test were performed in mice model in the laboratory with 50% ethanol extract of <em>Asparagopsis</em>. Following <em>in vivo</em> testing, no significant activity was observed. However, <em>Asparagopsis</em> was found to be rich in phytochemicals like phenols, flavonoids, saponin, glycoside, steroids, tannins, and alkaloids suggesting its importance for future scientific study. This may create a door to a new world in the Blue Economy sector of Bangladesh.</p> Abu Nayem Maksuda Akter Khadiza Rezwana Chowdhury Md. Abdul Alim Nazia Rifat Zaman Mohammad Nazir Hossain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1583 1591 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74584 Fatty acid composition of selected fish species farmed in Biofloc system <p>Bangladesh is well known for the abundant range of fish. Though fish consumption and variety are very high in Bangladesh, the biodiversity has been alarmingly declining in recent years due to a number of factors including the country's rapid population growth, industrial water pollution, natural disasters, sea intrusion, salinity, overexploitation of fisheries, use of harmful gear, and dewatering of waterbodies. Given that 60% of Bangladesh's rural poor are functionally landless, lack of access to land and water for agricultural production, and rely, in part, on shared resources like fish for their livelihoods and food, the loss of fish biodiversity could pose a special challenge for them. Considering all of this, biofloc technology ensures safe food and higher productivity in high-density fish farming in a limited area by being sustainable and ageless. In order to satisfy the demands, more creative and effective techniques for growing and harvesting fish have been created as the fishing business has developed. Present study analyses the fatty acid profile of two commonly consumed fish species <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Tilapia) and <em>Systomus sarana </em>(Shorputi). These fishes were farmed in biofloc system. They were fed commercial feeds and organic feed. Later the the fatty acid profile of both groups were measured. The organic feed group showed higher level of PUFA, omega 3 &amp; 6 fatty acid. Through biofloc technology it is possible to produce fish species with high nutritional level using minimum land and water resources. Sustainable food system can be developed through more research in Bangladesh.</p> Sumaiya Mamun Mohua Islam Sadia Alamgir Kabir Mohammad Abduz Zaher Mohammad Ata Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1592 1596 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74585 Plastic waste management through biological methods: an approach towards sustainable development <p>At present, the massive plastic pollution load into the environment has become an alarming issue in the world. Plastic wastes enter into the food chain through different ways and can cause serious health issues in&nbsp;aquatic animals and humans besides environmental pollution. Several techniques, including adsorption, coagulation, photocatalysis, and microbial degradation, as well as approaches such as reduction, reuse, and recycling, are currently popular. These techniques vary in their efficiency and the way they interact. Additionally, this review emphasizes the significant benefits and difficulties linked to these methods and strategies in order to comprehend the process of choosing viable paths toward a sustainable future. However, besides reducing plastic waste in the ecosystem, other alternative avenues have also been recently investigated to convert plastic wastes into value-added products for the circular economy. This review paper provides an overview of the currently documented methods and strategies focusing on the biological approaches used for the elimination of plastic trash and bioplastic development approaches. Furthermore, it is crucial to gain a comprehension of the key variables that must be highlighted while contemplating various methods and possibilities for bioplastic production, or insights into the potential utilization of these trashes as valuable resources or converting the plastic wastes into electricity, and transforming it into fuel. This review aims to offer readers a thorough summary of the current state of research about tactics and strategies to address the worldwide problem of plastic pollution.</p> M Mahfuza Khatun Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Nazmir-Nur Showva Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1597 1608 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74587 Effect of Verbal Reinforcement and Verbal Punishment on Performance <p>The problem of the present study was to investigate whether there is any effect of verbal reinforcement and verbal punishment on performance. The experiment was conducted on some young adult participants. The objective of the present study was to assess whether usual verbal reinforcement influenced performance more than the verbal punishment. It was hypothesized that positive verbal reinforcement would have a significantly greater impact on respondents' performance than positive verbal punishment. We adopted a between group design where 20 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two conditions, namely positive verbal reinforcement and positive verbal punishment. We provided the interventions through a small, structured interview where the positive verbal reinforcement group were handled warmly but the other group were not. Then we asked them to complete two specially designed monotonous tasks and measured their duration of engagement in the tasks as a measure of performance. The mean durations of engagement for the positive verbal reinforcement and positive verbal punishment groups were 1555.90 seconds and 675.90 seconds, respectively, which differed significantly at the .006 level with a t-value of 3.11 (df=18). And thus, we concluded that positive verbal reinforcement is more powerful to enhance performance than the positive verbal punishment.</p> Aminul Islam Afifa Hossain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1609 1611 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74588 Association between dietary calcium and pregnancy induced hypertension <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is one of the major complications of pregnancy. Inadequate calcium (Ca) intake is considered a public health problem in some vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women. A balanced diet during pregnancy with adequate Ca should be the ideal solution, and to proceed in this direction, evidence is required on the nature and extent of Ca deficiency in the diet of PIH mothers. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the dietary intake of Ca in PIH (compared to non-PIH) mothers and to explore the factors affecting the intake of those nutrients. <strong>Methods:</strong> Under an observational case-control design, we recruited 300 Bangladeshi pregnant women in two groups (150 with and 150 without PIH), aged between 20-40 years (from 3 hospitals in Dhaka) at the 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester of pregnancy. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. The first part of the questionnaire was allocated to general socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Secondly, a food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate individual dietary Ca intake. <strong>Results:</strong> The dietary Calcium intake [(mg/day), median (range)] was significantly lower [265(111-487)] (p&lt;0.001) in the PIH compared to the non-PIH [350(201-984) ;(p&lt;0.001)] group. On bivariate analysis, the dietary Calcium intakes had a significantly negative correlation with mean blood pressure which was considered an indicator of the severity of PIH (r=-0.276; p&lt;0.001) for Ca<sup>.</sup> On regression analysis, PIH was found to be significantly associated with a lower intake of Ca (b=-0.009; p&lt;0.001) when the effects of age, family history of HTN and family income were adjusted. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dietary consumption of Calcium during pregnancy is much lower than those recommended in our population, PIH seems to have an association with dietary deficiency of Calcium in pregnant women.</p> Ummy Salma Munni Khaleda Islam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1612 1618 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74589 Acceptance of Alternative Medicine in Bangladesh: A Study on Homeopathy <p>Homeopathy is widely recognized globally, including in Bangladesh, as part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) acknowledged by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is noted for effectively treating various conditions without adverse effects, which has garnered significant interest. This recent study investigated the acceptance of homeopathic medicine among Bangladeshi people, surveying 157 respondents. The participants comprised of 64.3% males and 35.7% females; among them a large majority (88.5%) had at least a graduate-level education, and 72.6% belonged to middle-class families. Interestingly, middle-aged individuals (45.2%) showed a particular affinity for homeopathy. This study revealed a high awareness levels among the respondents, with 89.8% familiar with homeopathic medicine and 86.6% erudite about its utilization. In addition, safety was mentioned by 65.6% of respondents, affordability by 55.4%, and effectiveness in many cases by 44.9%. However, all the above points collectively influenced their preference for homeopathy. There was a consensus among 69.4% of respondents advocating for integrating homeopathy into mainstream healthcare. The study participants endorsed few ideas including ensuring quality control of homeopathic medicines, promoting research initiatives, and providing greater integration opportunities for homeopathic practitioners within the healthcare system.</p> Nasrin Parvin Nur-E-Alam Rasel Mohammad Abul Hashem Bhuyan Md. Salimur Rahman Md. Mashiusjaman Md. Ruhul Amin Rumana Afroze Rume Nazmul Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 02 1619 1626 10.3329/brc.v10i2.74590